Diseases and MedicinesHealth

I blush, I fade: the danger of sunstroke

Summer is a time for vacations and holidays in hot countries. However, too long a stay in the sun is fraught with sunstroke.
Its main symptoms are lethargy, nausea and vomiting, fever, impaired pulse and convulsions. High humidity aggravates the condition. Sunstroke can end in a coma and even death.
Sunstroke develops under direct exposure to sunlight on the human body. Infrared radiation heats not only the surface layers of the skin, but also deeper tissues, including brain tissue, causing it to be damaged (dilated blood vessels, increased vascular permeability, resulting in the liquid part of the blood leaving the vascular bed and moving into the intercellular space, developing tissue swelling). Increased blood vessels and edema of the surrounding tissue is accompanied by compression of the medulla. Nerve cells (neurons) at the same time begin to experience a lack of oxygen, and with prolonged exposure to damaging factors begin to die. This is accompanied by a violation of sensitivity and motor activity, as well as damage to the cardiovascular,
There are three degrees of sunstroke. When a lung victim is conscious, complains of weakness, headache and nausea. His pulse and respiration increase, his pupils dilate. With a moderate degree, the temperature rises, the headache and nausea worsen, and the gait becomes shaky and uncertain. Possible short-term loss of consciousness and bleeding from the nose.
A severe form of sunstroke develops suddenly. The face of the victim is hot and red, but then becomes pale. Consciousness can be changed, hallucinations appear, body temperature rises to 41-42 ° C. Mortality in such cases can reach up to 20-30%.
In infants, sunstroke develops very rapidly.
The general condition is rapidly deteriorating, the body temperature rises to 40-41 ° C, the facial features are sharpened due to dehydration, the skin becomes pale, the consciousness darkens, convulsions occur and coma develops. Also observed diarrhea and vomiting. In older children, the clinical picture of sunstroke is similar to that in adults.
In addition to children, the elderly should also take special precautions: both those and others have little natural body thermoregulation, the ability of warm-blooded animals, including humans, to maintain a constant body temperature regardless of the ambient temperature. Also, the risk increases the direct exposure to sunlight on the head and the presence of health problems, such as obesity or hypertension.
Smokers and lovers of drinking in nature are at risk – these habits affect the state of the blood vessels and can aggravate the situation.
It is worth noting that during a sunstroke the whole body overheats as well, as a result of which the victim may show signs of not only sun, but also heat stroke. When the air temperature rises above 37 ° C (that is, above body temperature), the calving starts to be cooled solely due to evaporation of moisture from the surface of the skin. However, this is only possible with “dry” air – excessive humidity makes this process difficult, leading to overheating of the body. The consequence of this will be a rapid and pronounced increase in body temperature, which will lead to the development of heat stroke, accompanied by dysfunction of many vital organs and systems.
When heat stroke in the body accumulates waste products, which leads to intoxication. This is accompanied by impaired breathing and blood circulation and can lead to acute heart failure.
Most often this occurs in a stuffy, poorly ventilated area with high humidity, especially if the person is wearing clothing that prevents sweating. Heat stroke is more susceptible to people suffering from cardiovascular diseases.
If you suspect a sun or heat stroke, the victim should be taken away or carried to a cool place, freed from excess clothing and laid, slightly lifting his head.
It is necessary to put a cloth moistened with cold water on a person’s head. If possible, apply a cold water bubble to the back of the head and wrap the body with a cold sheet. You can put a wet tissue in the groin area, under the knees, in the armpits: in these places large vessels fit close to the body surface.
If you lose consciousness, you can use ammonia.
If the temperature rises, you can give the affected person antipyretic. When you stop breathing, you need to call an ambulance, and in anticipation of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation, perform artificial mouth-to-mouth ventilation and an indirect heart massage by pressing on the sternum.
After first aid, it is recommended to call a doctor. This is especially important in the case of moderate and severe sunstroke.
It is also worth remembering that overheating is dangerous by dehydration, from which German Chancellor Angela Merkel has recently suffered  .
From lack of fluid in the body of a woman began to shake.
Exposure to high temperatures significantly affects the body – the tone of the veins decreases, the speed of blood flow in the skin increases several times as it decreases in the internal organs. As a result, the delivery of oxygen to the liver, kidneys, intestines, skeletal muscles and other organs and systems is reduced, which makes them difficult to work. Prolonged exposure to abnormally high temperatures increases the temperature of the blood, resulting in reduced performance of the heart muscle. Heat causes dehydration, excessive sweating, changes in salt composition and blood viscosity. In conditions of heat, almost all indicators of human health change.
The main symptoms of dehydration are high thirst, low amount of urine and its dark yellow color, overwork, weakness. In severe form of dehydration – stupefaction, weak pulse, low blood pressure, cyanosis of the skin and mucous membranes.
Among the unobvious manifestations of dehydration are irritability, depression, anxiety. With the unexpected appearance of such symptoms, especially in the heat, you can try to cope with them by drinking a few glasses of water.
The loss of 20-25% of water is fatal, painful disorders occur with the loss of 10% of the total amount of water in the body. Therefore, in the heat it is necessary to especially closely monitor fluid intake.

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