The brain, located in the skull box, is surrounded on all sides by cerebrospinal fluid or cerebrospinal fluid. Its quantity is about 150 ml in an adult. It is designed to protect the brain from injury, provides nutrition and water-electrolyte balance. To perform these functions, besides constantly circulating between the brain and spinal cord, the fluid must be under a certain pressure. This is intracranial pressure (ICP), which normally ranges from 10 to 15 mm Hg in adults. Art.
However, it happens that the body under the influence of various factors produces liquor in larger quantities than necessary. In this case, the cerebrospinal fluid squeezes the nervous tissue and stretches the sensitive lining of the brain, which leads to an increase in intracranial pressure.
The reasons for the increase in ICP are different
So, it may be due to congenital hydrocephalus – the accumulation of a large volume of fluid caused by a violation of its outflow. Other causes include head injuries, benign and malignant brain tumors, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), diseases of the respiratory system (eg, bronchitis) and organ of hearing (otitis).
Increased intracranial pressure is also with toxicosis in pregnant women. In this case, the fetus suffers from a lack of oxygen. To ensure brain respiration, compensatory mechanisms are activated, in particular, the production of cerebrospinal fluid in a woman’s body increases.
How does the increase in ICP
First of all – a headache with no specific location, aggravated by bending, sneezing, coughing, turning the head. Another important symptom is visual impairment. For example, the patient complains of double vision, short-term misting.
There are also dizziness, confusion, memory impairment, blood pressure instability. With regard to the definition of ICP, it is carried out only in a hospital with a spinal puncture (piercing the wall of the spinal canal with a hollow needle). At the same time, cerebrospinal fluid is released, for which a pressure gauge is connected to measure pressure.
Diagnostics of ICP enhancement also includes magnetic resonance and computed tomography, examination by the eye fundus ophthalmologist. To reduce intracranial pressure, medical therapy, physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapy procedures are used.
Vladimir Yashin , doctor